antique textiles Knitting Norbury

Knit Is a Feminist Issue

'Knit With Norbury' (1952) cover
‘Knit With Norbury’ (1952) cover

Years ago, the fact I knitted horrified some of my feminist friends. They saw crafts, especially things like cooking, baking and needlecrafts, as conformation to some male imposed stereotype: knitting was a form of being suckered by the male hierarchy. This view was common to the point, I felt unable to knit when at some folks’ houses (and for me, knitting is just my default setting – something I do without even thinking, wherever I go).

Yet I felt, even then,  that by seeing crafts as subservience, my friends were missing the point entirely. I felt I was celebrating something feminine and that for me, was my feminism.  I read somewhere that whilst men have been busy fighting wars, women were quietly knitting; being creative.

Later, when I knew more about the history of knitting, I saw it was not a ‘feminine’ occupation at all until the 20thC; neither male nor female but more a case of celebrating human ingenuity.

Historically, perceptions have shifted backwards and forwards, so in some periods knitting was seen as a male pursuit; in some, a female. Often, in 20thC culture, male = “professional” and female = “amateur”. Hopefully we have moved on from this. I think we are finally finding balance again, where knitting belongs to everybody. But women of my generation endured that lengthy period of time when even other women despised what we did, as – ironically – it was denigrated because seen as ‘feminine’.

In the 19thC, knitting “‘was a universal occupation, both for men and for women…'”   (Rev W Nicholls, in The History and Traditions of Mallerstang Forest, 1883, quoted in ‘The Old Hand Knitters of the Dales’ (p. 70., Hartley & Ingilby, 1951). In the early Industrial Age, both women and men knitted.  The earliest recorded professional knitter, was female.  Kirsty Buckland cites the City of the Ripon Chapter Acts for the first hard evidence of an English knitter – one Marjory Clayton of Ripon, referred to as ‘cappeknitter’ in 1465. Later, men only knitted in remoter areas, which were generally isolated from society as a whole, like the Dales and parts of Scotland and Wales. Still later, it is recorded, men became embarrassed and derided for knitting – so gave it up, or at least, gave it up in public.

By the 1970s, it was seen as so thoroughly ‘feminine’ that even women were giving it up; in a society that judged you for conforming to the perceived male oligarchy. Especially in educated circles. Sometimes I felt like I had to defend or justify it – and sometimes it was my dirty secret; something I better not do in front of people. And yet, the more I learned of the craft’s history, the more I realised that knitting is a defiant, feminist statement – not a sign of being cowed by male oppression. Moving beyond feminism, it is full of the triumph of the human spirit; creativity, artistry and democracy.

Interestingly, ‘expert’ knitters, ever since the dawn of the TV age, have tended to be men. Designer like James Norbury (1904-1972), or Kaffe Fassett and knitting historian Richard Rutt, came to define the craft for their respective generations from the 1950s – 1980s. Rutt was taught to knit by his blacksmith grandfather.  Many of the (female) Dales knitters interviewed between the 1950s-70s, said they too were taught to knit by grandfathers.  Knitting seems to have almost – but not quite – died out amongst men. More accurately: men knitting in public nearly died out. Yet, whenever knitting hit the big time, we seem to have seen it through male eyes; and maybe sometimes culture has  denigrated it as the epitome of frivolous or unimportant even when these male knitter ‘experts’ absolutely did not.

Rather surprisingly, Marjorie Proops, the left-wing journalist wrote the Foreword to “Knit With Norbury” (Odhams, 1952). Turns out he was a regular contributor to the socialist ‘Daily Herald’. Proops describes her first meeting with him:

“…I labelled him, the way women label men, the Rugged Type. I could never imagine that his big hands could handle fine knitting, nor indeed that such a Rugged Type could really be interested in this gentle art… To watch him design a knitted garment is to watch and artist at work. He will dictate his patterns as a writer dictates a manuscript. And from the quick-fire dictation emerges a sweater or a suit that women rave about. One reason for his success, I think, is that he does with knitting what designers like Christian Dior do with dresses: he makes flattering garments in which a woman looks and feels her best…”

Tailored ladiesThe parallel with Dior is interesting, as his designs imposed a certain restrictive ideal of feminine beauty and ‘perfection’ on a generation of women. Norbury championed ‘tailored’ knitting; knitting shaped pieces that were then “made up” into the finished piece. “If the pieces of work are carefully blocked and then neatly seamed together to preserve their firm, tailored line, the final result will prove well worth the trouble taken….” (‘The Knitter’s Craft, James Norbury, 1950). Norbury goes on to say he uses at least 100 pins to block any one garment. Norbury was a male designer in a world where the overwhelming majority of people knitting his designs were female. It doesn’t seem to cross his mind there will be men knitting his designs:

“The way I have seen some women treat their knitteds fills me with dismay. I find myself wondering if women think they can maltreat them as much as they like without harm…”

(The Penguin Knitting Book, James Norbury, 1957).

Richard Rutt wrote the first comprehensive history of British knitting. We have gone through a period where people started to criticise Rutt’s work; some have said his scholarship lacked rigour, for example. Yet for all the criticisms, it largely passes scrutiny. It was the first work of its kind, in terms of scope and depth. Thirty years on, it remains required reading. Last year, I was working with two other knitters (the amazing Tom van Deijnen and Corvid) to reverse engineer a particularly tricky 19thC glove. It turns out Richard Rutt had not just written about the glove in his ‘History of Hand Knitting’ but had also fully reverse engineered it.  Photos of Rutt’s reverse engineering of the G Walton glove are here, on Tom’s blog:

Since writing the above, Tom worked on  a reverse engineering project of his own, with this glove, so probably became more acutely aware of the intricacies of this pair of gloves, than he could have guessed at the time of writing that post! I still maintain this is the most complex extant Dales glove. Marie Hartley and Joan Ingilby, in ‘The Okld Hand-Knitters of the Dales’, thought it a more primitive example than the later gloves – but then, they weren’t knitters!

Rutt’s version was perfectly sound and creditable – he had also picked up the mistakes, inconsistencies and subtleties we found, over thirty years later. It is easy to try to retro-fit our contemporary mores on male ‘expert’s like Norbury or Rutt. Yet they were products of their own time – the bombastic Norbury can come over as the ultimate ‘mansplainer’ – yet the reality was closer to “passionate advocate of our craft”, I think. In the rush to point out inaccuracies in his attempts to deliver the history of the craft, we lose the essence of the man. At least he was trying to piece together the craft’s history and doing it before anyone else. His designs still work. I’ve collected Norbury’s books since the 1980s; maybe only knitted one or two of his designs over that time, but could see they were well crafted, clever designs.

'The Knitter's Craft', James Norbury, 1950
‘The Knitter’s Craft’, James Norbury, 1950

There is an element of sexism creeping into knitting, in some places online, with male knitters/bloggers sometimes characterised by women as “mansplainers” and at least one (brilliant)cutting-edge designer who happens to be male, being lambasted for being a ‘fashion victim’, and capitalising on his own ‘notoriety’.  When I look at his work, that’s not what I see and I think if men were saying that of women designers’ work, we’d find it unacceptable, to suggest someone only has success because of their gender. The designer in question is successful because he is good at what he does. End of story. All he is guilty of, is  betraying a fairly mainstream European sensibility with some photo-styling that (for some people) pushes the boundaries.

This is, in reverse,  the same kind of sexism that made my own  knitting go underground for a decade or more, in the 1980s/90s.  When it comes to this designer’s work, I think it is motivated by envy – as when I read the threads lambasting him,  the commentators do seem very envious of his talent and amusingly shocked by his photo-styling – or busily pretending not to be shocked. Whilst being shocked. It’s an exercise in pearl-clutching from people who are usually the first to satirise pearl-clutching.

We can’t retro-fit our own political correctness to male designers from sixty years ago. In the end, all designers should stand or fall by the quality and usefulness of their designs.  We’re now, thankfully moving out from an age where sexism against women or men, is acceptable.  Hopefully. Good design is good design. ‘Experts’ may well be male or female. And the same goes for knitters. And the same goes for designers. Norbury’s commentary, introductions and the bits between his designs, may now seem ‘dated’ and even offend our sensibilities; but the work stands the test of time. There is nothing I would not knit, in any of his books that I own. Just as I found, if Rutt’s scholarship sometimes is a bit doubtful –  the unseen workings-out behind the scenes of ‘A History of Hand-Knitting’ were impressive. We are all products of our own time but sometimes design, or ability, outlives that time. And design? It has no gender.

"The Knitter's Craft", James Norbury, 1950
“The Knitter’s Craft”, James Norbury, 1950

13 replies on “Knit Is a Feminist Issue”

This is less about sexism and more about protest. I saw a post on a large Facebook knitting group about the infamous ‘pussy hat’. The poster thought it was atrocious to use knitting in this manner. I responded, reminding her that in the pre-revolutionary days colonists used their knitting, spinning and weaving skills to protest British laws. They spun their own yarn, knitted their own socks, mittens, shawls, hats and spun their own homespun fabric for clothing so they did not have to purchase British goods.

I have a slightly different view of feminism-it is meant to give women equality and freedom to be who they are. Who am I? I am a knitter. I play with designs, and knit daily. I am also a strong believer in individuality and each of us having a right to be unique and to show our uniqueness.


I’m only semi in agreement with this. The only mansplainers in the textile world that I can think of have more than earned that title based on their own behaviour. As for the designer, my feeling is that there’s some backlash coming his way because of a level of attention-seeking that’s all out of proportion with the designs. It’s telling that none of this is directed towards Jared Flood, probably because he isn’t a dick, doesn’t attention-whore, and lets the quality of his work speak loudest. Quality+substance+courtesy
+ lack of self-importance = no backlash. And that goes for female designers too. The ones with anti-fans have generally earned it as individuals.


I always hate to see male bashing, I think because I lived thru female bashing in the 60s, and spent that time in the trenches – before feminism. I know what it was like to be bashed. Not good or deserved on either side. I wish we would reward people for their talents, not gender and not who’s the cutest, or who shouts the loudest, or who’s the most outrageous.

Liked by 1 person

Fascinating post and comments. I too have had – and still do have, sometimes – the sneery response from some feminist friends. I simply point out that as far as I am concerned, feminism means the right to do what you want to do. If I want to be an engineer or play rugby, fine; if I want to also knit, also fine.

Any sexist responses – any – are way out of order. People may have problems with X’s patterns and attitudes, but I wonder if some of that isn’t a case of tall poppy syndrome, dressed up in sexist clothing. Nobody’s perfect all the time, male or female, and no designer is perfect all the time, but trolling is unacceptable whatever. I agree with you 100% that the ideal is to get to a point where gender is irrelevant, both as a designer and as a knitter (or spinner – I know several male spinners too).


I disagree on some of this. The designer in question — I’m fairly sure I know who you’re referring to — doesn’t make me roll my eyes because he’s male. He makes me roll my eyes because he’s a lazy designer. His earlier designs are really nice — I’m knitting one of his shawls right now, and it’s a very clever, inventive design. But somewhere along the line he realized that garter-stitch stripes are easy to design and produce, and that his fanbase will buy every pattern he puts out as long as it isn’t too complicated, and is accompanied by heaps of whimsical photos and the idea that, by buying his stuff, they’re his best friends. And hey, good for him for realizing it, and figuring out how to capitalize on it.

I do think there are a lot of designers out there who deserve a lot more attention than they get, both male and female.


I’d agree with that if I hadn’t seen comments like:

“‘what do you mean, the finished item is a weird shape and full of holes? Oh, wait, I’m not FAMOUS enough to try and pull that off.’

You could do it if you had a penis. Penises make any design better and a must have. Penises are what make you money.”

Two people, one quoting and responding to another but in both, right there, you have something that bothers me. If a man wrote online of a female designer: “Tits are a must-have. Tits are what make you money” we’d (quite rightly) object to it. Although I’m not even quite sure what that person was saying. It looked ugly, though.

Some designers generate a great fan-base. Would we question that so much if the designer, here, was a woman?

I question the idea quoted above, that “famous” designers are cynical. You say this designer has become “lazy” but this first person says the opposite – that his designs are “weird”. And this points to something that is so self-evident we sometimes forget it: design is subjective. The knitters bring their baggage to it. Some are conservative people who find the thought of a “weird” shaped shawl with holes in it, shocking and outre. Others might find the very same design, boring and unchallenging. Still others buy and knit it because they love it.

I can’t help wondering if people are riled about this particular designer’s ‘fan girls’ because he is male – the underlying implication of this being quite insulting to other women (“Ah look what suckers you are, falling for this marketing!”) I happen to like edgy photo shoots. The designer in question, he is not, to me, “whimsical”. If you want extreme whimsy, you can find that in a million more amateur places, online. (Thinking of the site of a wannabe ‘designer’ I saw recently who ‘borrowed’ a design). I don’t think interesting photo shoots are about designers’ attention-seeking, just a different aesthetic.

There is also a sense in which people are buying into an image of themselves, the kind of person they think they are or would like to be, or an idea when they part with money for a design – any design – and “the romance” sometimes sells the product. People are buying into the idea of you being whatever it is you are, as a designer and the back-story is a valid part of the whole enterprise. It seems you’re damned if you do, and damned if you don’t as a designer – if you are astute and clever at marketing yourself, that is somehow held against you.

There’s no finite amount of attention out there for designers – if someone is great, chances are they too can build a following. Designers of staggering talent – and I could name a few but won’t – do seem to turn up every now and then and soon find their followers. I’d like to see more men knitting – well, I think we all would! If male designers doing well helps bring that about – then great. Let’s have it.

This whole thing is just the backlash from the sexism of the 20thC, I think, so has its part in the history of our craft and was something I wanted to document. But I’d like to get to a place beyond this – where the gender of the designer does not feature in any vitriol their work stirs up.


I’ve an idea who the designer in question is and while I have no personal experience with him apart from enjoying his designs that I’ve knit, I have been to a workshop with another fairly famous male knitter/designer–and I found the way that the other women fawned over him to be a bit disturbing. Their reaction was dissimilar to the way they’d reacted to a female knitter/designer of a similar level of fame/talent. I think, perhaps, the slams against Designer #1 are a kind of reaction to the ways in which some people believe that male participation in knitting is a validation of the pastime.

I do not think the reaction to Designer #1 sexism–I think it’s more complicated than that because men still hold a privileged position in our culture and the interplay of that along with the perceived low status of knitting and other textile/fiber arts can be, at times, toxic.


You’ve hit on a good point there about male participation, in some people’s minds, equalling validation.

“I do not think the reaction to Designer #1 sexism–I think it’s more complicated than that because men still hold a privileged position in our culture and the interplay of that along with the perceived low status of knitting and other textile/fiber arts can be, at times, toxic.” is a very good point and broadly, I agree with you, and hadn’t thought of it like that. Although I do think there is an element of sexism there within the reaction, because we perceive that man have that cultural privilege..?

It is fascinating to look at the history of knitting as a whole – and I can only refer to UK knitting history as that’s the only one I know about, so this has got to be different across other cultures – and see the tide ebb and flow between it being perceived as a male or female pursuit. I suppose one thing I am trying to articulate is, maybe we live at an exciting time now where we stand a chance of balancing it, more?


This is a very interesting topic. I have to admit I have wondered at times if notoriety of male knitters is not often due to sexism in our society, as I feel is the case with fashion designers and economically successful artists in general. I think the issue here is not so much whether a particular male knitter has merit or not, but rather if our society is still happier to allow a man and not a woman to success as an artist or crafter. It could be that the web is having some democratic effect in this regard, and women are finding it easier to be recognised in the world, as there is not so much dependency on more established (and conservative) institutions like the media, but I think the bias is still there.


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